By Pramod R. Bhave
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Extra resources for Analysis of Flow in Water Distribution Networks
29A/2/. — R value is for L and D in meters and Q in cube meters per second. 2 Simple Pipe Flow Problems 45 Manning coefficient N are generally assumed to remain constant for a given pipe, the value of R remains constant for a given pipe and is independent of the discharge through it. However, for the Darcy-Weisbach formula, as the coefficient of friction/is a function of the Reynolds number, the value of the pipe resistance constant R of a pipe depends on the discharge through it. 10 SIMPLE PIPE FLOW PROBLEMS Three types of simple pipe flow problems are encountered in practice.
9) is known as Karman-Prandtl equation for smooth turbulent flow. This equation is implicit and the value of/must be obtained by trial and error. Several investigators such as Schimemi, Barnes, Blair, Lamont  and Ger and Holley  have suggested relationships similar to that of Blasius for smooth turbulent flow. 4 TRANSITIONAL TURBULENT FLOW For the transitional turbulent flow,/is a function of Re and elD. For this flow Colebrook  suggested a relationship, known commonly as the Colebrook-White equation: (2IOa) or = ~2 log ( I ?
However, energy may be converted from one form to another. A flowing mass of a fluid may contain energy in different forms such as mechanical, thermal, and chemical. For water distribution networks, however, only the energy that is available and therefore useful is considered. Since other forms of energy cannot be used, if the available energy is converted to any other form, the energy is considered as lost. For example, in a flowing mass of water, part of the available energy may be converted into thermal energy due to internal friction.