By Thomas C. Henderson

This publication covers up to date tools and algorithms for the automatic research of engineering drawings and electronic cartographic maps. The Non-Deterministic Agent procedure (NDAS) deals a parallel computational method of such picture research. The ebook describes suggestions appropriate for chronic and specific wisdom illustration for engineering drawings and electronic maps. It additionally highlights extra particular suggestions, e.g., employing robotic navigation and mapping how to this challenge. additionally incorporated are extra designated money owed of using unsupervised segmentation algorithms to map pictures. ultimately, most of these threads are woven jointly in similar platforms: NDAS and AMAM (Automatic Map research Module).

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InCircle(x,circle): x is contained within a circle. touches(x,y): x and y are part of same image segment. adjacent(x,y): x and y are adjacent to each other. parallel(x,y): x and y have parallel axes. perpendicular(x,y): x and y have perpendicular axes. near(x,y): x and y within some distance. collinear(x,y): major axes of x and y on same line. length(x): length of x. angleBetween(x,y): angle between x and y. between(x,y,z): y is between x and z. horizontal(x): x is horizontal. unequal(x,y): x and y are not the same.

Compute P’s PRM and the longest forward direction FDIR. 3. Compute a MGVD path along FDIR and its opposite direction BDIR until it hits the background pixel boundary. The set of MGVD nearest neighbor points form a linear path through the segment. Hence the linear segment to which P belongs has been extracted. By iterative application of the above steps on a connected component foreground object, the algorithm extracts all linear segments of the connected component. Performance measures for the MGVD extraction method were developed and tested on several engineering drawing images.

2 Higher-Level Structures Higher-level structures correspond to the nonterminal symbols in a shape grammar, and can be described by rewrite rules which define sub-structures which comprise the new structure, and the relations that must exist between the sub-structures. Loosely described, these are given as: • (21) pointer ray1: enforces distinct instance of pointer ray. • (22) pointer ray2: enforces distinct instance of pointer ray. 2 Higher-Level Structures • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 51 (23) pointerarc ray1: enforces distinct instance of pointerarc ray.