By Hester R.E., Harrison R.M. (eds.)
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W. Schindler, Science (Washington, DC), 1977, 196, 260. 31 A. J. D. Ferguson et al. Production through much of the year will be subject to other constraints; for example, the availability of light beneath the water surface. Seasonal differences in day length and periodic fluctuations in the depth of light penetration by active wavelengths often have an overriding effect on the net production rates and the supportive capacity. Temperature also affects production rates but, through its influence on the thermal expansion of water, it also induces changes in the depth of vertical mixing and resistance to wind-stirring processes.
Correction of this problem requires considerable investment in separate systems. In the short to medium term, nutrient export to water might be better managed through the widespread adoption of agricultural best-practice. In particular, discharges from silage clamps, dairy yards and animal rearing facilities should be separated from farm drainage and treated appropriately. Artificial macrophytic wetlands can be used successfully to reduce nutrients from point source effluents in many of these situations.
Other non-statutory operational standards have been developed by the NRA to control discharges and assess water quality. Some substances defined in List I of EC Directive 76/464/EEC have had statutory EQSs set in daughter Directives. These have been transcribed into UK legislation via the Surface Water (Dangerous Substances) (Classification) Regulations of 1989 and 1992. Any exceedence of these statutory EQSs downstream of relevant discharges are reported annually to the DoE and action is taken to prevent further exceedences.