By John F. Shroder
A glance on the geographic, political, monetary, and social points of Afghanistan, a rustic suffering to reconcile modernization with conventional values and methods.
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Extra resources for Afghanistan (Modern World Nations)
The artificial Wakhan Corridor panhandle was also established as a classic narrow buffer zone to keep border problems to a minimum. From a British perspective, Afghanistan was both a buffer between its Indian colony and czarist Russia, and an element of a more ambitious objective—clear global dominance. ” This theory was first expressed in 1904 and was greatly expanded upon in his book, Democratic Ideas and Reality, published in 1919. ” His statement, which had a profound impact on political geography and the military policy of many countries, read: Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Who rules the Heartland commands the World Island; Who rules the World Island commands the World.
Mahmud was a patron of the arts and literature and was said to have had 900 resident scholars, including the scientist-historian al-Biruni and the poet Firdousi, in his House of Learning. Afghanistan was later incorporated into the extensive Seljuk Sultanate. Divisions formed within the sultanate, resulting in the emergence of a separate Seljuk Sultanate of Merv in Central Asia. It, in turn, fell into anarchy upon the revolt of its Ghuzz mercenaries. During the thirteenth century, Afghanistan was included in the Shahdom of Khwarezm, a state then devastated by the merciless campaigns of Genghis Khan and the Mongols in 1220 and 1221.
The point is not a matter of “right” or “wrong”; rather, it is one of a foreign power imposing its will on Afghanistan’s people, economy, and government. The United States and the Soviet Union were not the only countries active in Afghanistan. Diplomatic relations had been established with many countries during the reign of Amanullah. It was within the context of increasingly complex international The Age of European Imperialism relationships that the Afghans attempted to understand their relationship with the United States.