By Teresa Scolamacchia, José Luis Macías
This ebook summarizes the experiences performed at of the main lively volcanoes of Chiapas (Mexico): El Chichón and Tacaná. El Chichón erupted explosively in 1982 killing greater than 2000 humans being the worst volcanic catastrophe in Mexico, and Tacaná produced light phreatic explosions in 1950 and 1986. merely after those explosions a surge of latest stories started to unreveal their volcanic background and influence.
This ebook provides the cutting-edge advances in subject matters concerning the geologic environment of the 2 volcanoes, their eruptive background and composition of erupted items, the hydrothermal platforms and their manifestations. Volcanic dangers and hazards and attainable mitigation plans are mentioned in line with the adventure of the catastrophic eruption of El Chichón that happened in 1982. The publication also will comprise formerly unpublished fabric at the vegetation and the fauna of the sector and archaeological and social features of the realm that's inhabited by means of indigenous people.
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Extra info for Active Volcanoes of Chiapas (Mexico): El Chichón and Tacaná
2003). Maﬁc enclaves found in lava domes and pyroclastic deposits (Macías et al. 2003; Layer et al. 2009; Arce et al. 2014) represent another evidence of injections of maﬁc magmas and mixing as well. The whole-rock chemistry of El Chichón samples (Luhr et al. 1984; McGee et al. 1987; Espíndola et al. 2000; Macías et al. 2003; Andrews et al. 2008; Layer et al. 2009) has been grouped according to sample ages “or associated structures” into: 1982 eruption, Holocene, Pleistocene, Dome structures, maﬁc enclaves, and Chapultenango trachybasalt (Arce et al.
2008). e. Roberge et al. 2009; Christopher et al. 2010). The existence of a deep magma reservoir below El Chichón (Fig. 10) would be also suggested by seismic data previous to the 1982 eruption, which indicate a seismic gap at depths between 7 and 13 km below the volcano. Such area could represent a deeper magma chamber (Jimenez et al. 1999; Chap. 5). The high frequency of eruptions during the last 8,000 years (Espíndola et al. 2000) were explained with repeated injections of maﬁc magma (45–51 wt% SiO2) from a deep reservoir (13 km) able to reinvigorate sluggish and cooling trachyandesitic magmas (55–61 wt% SiO2) at shallower depths (7 km).
The high frequency of eruptions during the last 8,000 years (Espíndola et al. 2000) were explained with repeated injections of maﬁc magma (45–51 wt% SiO2) from a deep reservoir (13 km) able to reinvigorate sluggish and cooling trachyandesitic magmas (55–61 wt% SiO2) at shallower depths (7 km). %SiO2 870ºC; 2 kb 10 15 Mafic injections from deeper sources have been proposed for Tacaná system. Fig. 10 Sketch of El Chichón and Tacaná magmatic systems based on petrologic and seismic data. Temperature and pressure estimates were taken from Luhr (1990); Macías et al.