By Stefan Dienst
Amazonia is linguistically hugely different zone with a number of underdocumented, usually heavily endangered languages. This paintings is a reference grammar of an Amazonian language spoken within the rainforests of Brazil and Peru. The booklet offers a finished perception into the grammatical constitution of Kulina, so as to be of significant worth to linguistic typologists and anyone attracted to indigenous languages of South the US.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Kulina
Rivet and Tastevin (1938a, 1938b, 1939, 1940) contain data from several Kulina wordlists collected by Tastevin, some of them from non-indigenous people who had some knowledge of the language. Carvalho (1931) contains a wordlist collected by the author. 4 Historical linguistics and language contact Dixon (1999) is an overview of the language family with a reconstruction of the phonology of the proto-language. Proto-Arawan phonology is discussed more comprehesively in Dixon (2004b), which includes about 460 cognate sets with reconstructed proto-forms.
Many of the texts are traditional stories, often with several versions of a story told by different people. g. g. going to town to apply for a pension³). Some texts describe the production of artefacts and substances, such as red paint from the fruit of the annato tree and black paint from the fruit of the genipap tree. Several recordings deal with various kinds of animals and their behaviour. I also recorded and transcribed some traditional songs. Each line of a song is usually repeated several times and the next line, again repeated several times, may only vary a little, so that long recordings produce only little text.
I/ versus a monosyllabic /ai/. It is probably the phonetic surrounding, especially the quality of the following consonant, which is more conducive to the pronunciation of /ai/ as a diphthong in some cases than in others. Cases of the non-morpheme-final diphthong [ai ̯] can therefore be analysed as sequences of the phonemes /a/ and /i/. Evidence for the hypothesis that the elements of these phonetic diphthongs belong to different syllables comes from the word mamaizade ‘liar’, which is derived from the verb maiza- ‘to lie’.