A Course in Phonetics, Fourth edition by Peter Ladefoged

By Peter Ladefoged

The straightforward to appreciate strategy builds at the fundamentals, starting with technical phrases required for describing speech and transcription symbols ahead of relocating directly to the phonetics of English and different languages.

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The second problem with existing causal accounts of terrorism is that the identified variables might apply to a much broader set of phenomena than terrorism. ” Where, therefore, does their explanatory power in relation to the specific phenomenon of terrorism reside? Going back to the example given earlier, the presence of grievances could well be a cause for terrorism, but it needs to be fitted into an explanation of how they exactly generate extremist violence. Some level of grievance, in fact, is what characterises any political arena, even the most democratic, civilised and far removed from violence.

These are the specific events or situations that immediately precede, motivate or trigger the outbreak of terrorism” (Bjørgo 2005a: 258). : 259–260). For Bjørgo the lack of democracy is a precondition for terrorism. For Crenshaw the “lack of opportunity for political participation” – which could be alternatively called lack of democracy – is a precipitant. At the end it might just all be a matter of definitions, but one cannot escape the suspicion that what is a “precondition” and what is a “precipitant” could be relative to each individual case.

A causal explanation involves establishing a link between a phenomenon, X (the embracing of extremist views – radicalisation – for example), and a factor, Y, – what Gary King, Robert Keohane, and Sidney Verba (1994) would call “variable” (terrorist extremist propaganda material, for instance). The causal relationships between variable/s and outcome can be more or less complex. 1, straightforward as in case A. This can involve a chain of variables, as in B. Alternatively, this can present more complex sets of causal connections, as in C.

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