A Clash of Empires: Turkey between Russian Bolshevism and by Bulent Gokay

By Bulent Gokay

This ebook bargains with the aftermath of the ""Great Game"" - the protracted fight among Britain and Russia for impression within the heart jap and vital Asian lands that bordered the increasing Russian empire of the late-19th century. It covers a interval that used to be an important within the glossy political historical past of the entire region from Thrace to the Caucasus, displaying how an alliance among Turkish nationalism and Bolshevism compelled Britain to acknowledge that it didn't have the manpower and assets to consolidate the spoils of its victory after global battle I. It additionally presents historic heritage to the present geopolitical pursuits of either Turkey and Russia within the war-torn Caucasus.

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67 Methodological Approach My research assumes that major aspects of the life of medieval society, the religious aspect in particular, may indeed be retrieved and reconstructed from the texts which constitute the source material for this work. The data, however, must be processed with the aid of discourse analysis, in order to decipher the means of expression and representation, and take us beyond the simplistic collection of facts (or what seem to be facts). The integration of those two approaches—namely, the positivistic reconstruction of the ways through which twelfththirteenth century Muslims actively expressed their commitment to Islam, and the deciphering of the discourse by which piety and impiety were constructed in the literature produced by the members of that society—was one of the challenges of this work.

Besides his large scholarly compilations on ¿qh and ªadíth, he composed short devotional treatises, such as Kitåb al-Adhkår (a collection of invocations for all occasions), or Maqå‚id al-Íalåt (The Purports of Prayer) that were most likely written for ordinary believers and popular audiences. Al-Nawawë’s Kitåb al-Arbaöín (a collection of forty ªadíth to memorize) may be seen in the same light. 59 54 See the short discussion about the value of legal and didactic material for the historian, in Berkey, “Tradition”; 30–42; Hallaq, “From Fatwås,” 32–38.

Altogether, al-Muqaddasë mentions eighteen mosques in Palestine. 16 In the twelfth century there were at least seven mosques on Mt. Nåblus,17 two of which—the mosques of the villages of Jammåôël 12 See example in al-ôUmarë, Masålik, 1:197. Eddé, Alep, 435; Makdisi, Rise of Colleges, 23. 14 Mulder, ³Contextualizing,´ 76–77. 15 Literary sources mention al-Masjid al-Maghribë and another mosque, built in the proximity of the town where the prophet Adam had prayed (¤iyåÞ al-Dën alMaqdisë, al-Óikåyåt, 94a; trans.

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