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The complexity of the mind and the protean nature of habit stay the main elusive region of technological know-how, but in addition crucial. van Hemmen and Sejnowski invited 23 specialists from the various areas--from evolution to qualia--of structures neuroscience to formulate one challenge every one. even supposing every one bankruptcy used to be written independently and will be learn individually, jointly they supply an invaluable roadmap to the sphere of structures neuroscience and should function a resource of inspirations for destiny explorers of the mind.
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Extra info for 23 Problems in Systems Neuroscience (Computational Neuroscience Series)
The ﬁrst is that perceptual grouping could be a high-level, learned property. , several concentrations of jasmine) do not actually evoke related patterns after decorrelation. , jasmine). This is a high-level grouping by contingency. A second possibility uses the fact that decorrelation is a temporal process; hence, early phases of a representation (say the ﬁrst 100 milliseconds) are very similar across related stimuli (Friedrich and Laurent 2001). Provided the brain can hold that ﬂeeting information, it could use it for perceptual grouping or, conversely, ignore it for precise identiﬁcation using decorrelated patterns.
To ﬁnd out more about these inﬂuences, two barn owls were tested in a cued discrimination task as introduced by Posner, Snyder, and Davidson (1980) that delivered consistent or inconsistent information about the probable position of an upcoming auditory event to the owl. In the consistent (‘‘valid’’) condition, an informative visual prestimulus (‘‘cue’’) in front of the owl pointed to the hemisphere where a subsequent peripheral auditory target would occur after a randomized cuetarget delay. In the inconsistent (‘‘invalid’’) condition, the visual cue pointed to the hemisphere opposite the upcoming auditory target.
Nature 390: 70–74. , and G. Laurent. 1999. Short-term memory in olfactory network dynamics. Nature 402: 664–668. , S. K. Chao, R. Sitcheran, J. M. Nunez, L. B. Vosshall, R. Axel. 1994. Topographic organization of sensory projections to the olfactory bulb. Cell 79: 981–991. Vinje, W. , and J. L. Gallant. 2000. Sparse coding and decorrelation in primary visual cortex during natural vision. Science 287: 1273–1276. , and G. Laurent. 1996. Odor encoding by temporal sequences of ﬁring in oscillating neural assemblies.